This is a short summery of what you need to do if you want to apply for a residence permit in Turkey.
As a foreigner, you need a visa or visa exemption to enter Turkey. If you want to stay for a longer period of time, normally one year, you can apply for a residence permit.
Get all your documents in order:
Copy of your passport or travel documents. (The photo page and the page with the last entry stamp)
Apply for the first time:
On the day of your appointment.
On the day of your appointment, make sure you bring all the required documents including the print out of the confirmation page and receipt form the tax office to the Nüfus office.
Extension of your residence permit.
The process to extend a residence permit is the same as applying for the first time. You need all the documents mentioned above. The only difference is that you choose “Extension of residence permit” instead of applying for the first time.
When you have paid the required tax you put the receipt, the required documents, and the print out of the confirmation page in an envelope and send it to the Nüfus office. Make sure you get a track-id.
When you extend your residence permit there is generally no need for any appointments at the Nüfus office.